High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar

semester, 2017

Friday, January 20th 2017
There will be no seminar this week.

Friday, January 27th 2017
Speaker: Yi-Zen Chu (U. Minnesota-Duluth)
Subject: Cosmological Gravitational Waves: Causal Structure And Memories

Despite being associated with particles of zero rest mass, electromagnetic and gravitational waves do not travel solely on the null cone in generic curved spacetimes. (That is, light does not always propagate on the light cone.) This inside-the-null-cone propagation of waves is known as the tail effect, and finding novel ways of understanding it in the strong field regime near a black hole may find applications for modeling the gravitational signals sought after by next-generation space-based detectors such as LISA

Friday, February 3rd 2017
Speaker: Mikhail Goykhman (U Chicago)
Subject: Large-N three-dimensional matter and Landau Fermi liquid

One of the typical low-temperature phases of fermionic matter is
described by a phenomenological theory called Landau Fermi liquid.
I will be discussing the first proposed exactly solvable
microscopic theories which behave at low energies as Landau Fermi liquid.
These theories are the large-N three-dimensional Chern-Simons-fermion
and Thirring models. I will demonstrate how the three-dimensional
large-N power allows one to obtain exact results, at any value of the coupling
constant, for a number of interesting observables.

Friday, February 10th 2017
Speaker: Ranjan Laha (Stanford)
Subject: Two new avenues in dark matter indirect detection

Indirect detection is one of the major ways to search for dark matter. However, backgrounds have been a major problem for these searches. In this talk, I will introduce two new techniques to distinguish signal from background. Firstly, I will show how telescopes with ~ 0.1% energy resolution can exploit the Doppler shift of sharp photon features arising from dark matter interactions and separate the signal from background. The technique is general and I will give an example of this search strategy with the 3.5 keV line. In the second half of my talk, I will show how limits from the searches for very high energy photons can be used to constrain dark matter interactions. Using this observable, I will constrain very heavy dark matter which is very difficult to constrain using other means.

Friday, February 17th 2017
Speaker: Masha Baryakhtar, Perimeter Institute
Subject: Searching for Ultralight Particles with Black Holes and Gravitational Waves

The LIGO detection of gravitational waves has opened a new window on
the universe. I will discuss how the process of superradiance,
combined with gravitational wave measurements, makes black holes into
nature's laboratories to search for new light bosons, from axions to
dark photons. When a bosonic particle's Compton wavelength is
comparable to the horizon size of a black hole, superradiance of these
bosons into bound "Bohr levels" extracts energy and angular momentum
from the black hole. The occupation number of the levels grows
exponentially and the black hole spins down. One candidate for such an
ultralight boson is the QCD axion with decay constant above the GUT
scale. Current black hole spin measurements disfavor a factor of 30
(>100) in axion (vector) mass; future measurements can provide
evidence of a new boson. Particles transitioning between levels and
annihilating to gravitons may produce thousands of monochromatic
gravitational wave signals, and turn LIGO into a particle detector.

Friday, February 24th 2017
Speaker: Yann Mambrini (CNRS, LPT of University Paris XI)
Subject: Historical Dark Matter Papers

Friday, March 3rd 2017
Speaker: Ryo Namba (McGill)
Subject: Gravitational wave signals from low-energy inflation

Detection of tensor mode fluctuations at the largest cosmological scales is often expected to provide a robust evidence of inflation and to fix the inflationary energy scale. Such direct connection is however applicable only when the tensor perturbations are originated from their quantum fluctuations during inflation and are effectively decoupled from other energy contents. We consider a case exceptional to this lore. When an SU(2) gauge field is present and is prevented from diluting away by a coupling to a pseudo-scalar, the configuration of the SU(2) vev preserves the background isotropy, and on this geometry, the SU(2) perturbations introduce an additional tensor mode. The substantial growth experienced by this mode is then transferred to the true tensor fluctuations of the metric already at the linear level. While these fields are energetically subdominant to the inflaton, their perturbations can be considerably larger than the standard amplitude. We discuss several potential constraints on the mechanism and demonstrate that detectable tensor mode signals even for low energy inflation.

Friday, March 10th 2017
Speaker: Sam McDermott (Stonybrook)
Subject: Supernova Bounds on Dark Sectors

Supernova 1987A created an environment of extremely high temperatures and nucleon densities. The rough agreement between predictions of core collapse models and observations of a "neutrino burst" provide an opportunity to set bounds on a wide range of theories of new physics. We present new bounds on dark sector models, incorporating finite-temperature effects on the production and trapping for the first time, and also utilizing a more realistic model of the high-mixing parameter space than in previous work. This has dramatic effects for the landscape of such models.

Friday, March 17th 2017

Friday, March 24th 2017
Speaker: Peter Adshead (UIUC)
Subject: Phenomenology of gauge and fermion-preheating and the end of axion inflation

Axions are attractive candidates for theories of large-field inflation that are capable of generating observable primordial gravitational wave backgrounds. These fields enjoy shift symmetries that protect their role as inflatons from being spoiled by coupling to unknown UV physics. This symmetry also restricts the couplings of these axion fields to other matter fields. At lowest order, the only allowed interactions are derivative couplings to gauge fields and fermions. These derivative couplings lead to the biased production of fermion and gauge-boson helicity states during and after inflation. I will describe some recent work on reheating in axion-inflation models that are derivatively coupled to Abelian gauge-fields and fermion axial-currents. The biased production of fermion helicity-states in these theories has interesting phenomenological implications for leptogenesis, while gauge preheating in this class of models can be extremely efficient, and can result in cosmologically relevant magnetic fields.

Friday, March 31st 2017
Speaker: Alex Kamenev (UMN)
Subject: TBA

Friday, April 7th 2017
Speaker: Ely Kovetz (John Hopkins)
Subject: The LIGO Discovery and Primordial Black Hole Dark Matter

The LIGO observatory has recently reported several detections of gravitational waves from the coalescence of binary black holes. We consider the extraordinary possibility that the detected events involving heavier masses are mergers of primordial black holes making up the dark matter in the Universe. We will describe various ways of testing this proposition once more gravitational wave data is gathered, survey some of the existing constraints and present a novel probe of massive compact dark matter in the relevant mass range based on strong gravitational lensing of fast radio bursts. We will conclude with a summary of the observational prospects to test the proposed scenario over the next decade.

Friday, April 14th 2017
Speaker: Kevin Zhang (U. Michigan)
Subject: Covariant diagrams: a new approach to one-loop EFT matching

Matching a full theory onto an effective field theory (EFT) by integrating out heavy fields is often useful for connecting low-energy phenomenology to high-scale physics. I introduce a new formulation of one-loop matching in terms of "covariant diagrams," which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, preserve gauge covariance and thus simplify calculations. Starting from a set of simple rules, I will demonstrate the use of covariant diagrams with examples. I will also discuss an interesting universal structure of one-loop effective Lagrangians revealed by such calculations.

Monday, April 17th 2017
Speaker: Valerie Domcke, APC - University of Paris
Subject: A cosmological B-L phase transition

Cosmic inflation is an impressively successful paradigm in our understanding of the early Universe. Its embedding into particle physics is however still an open question. In this talk, I will present a `complete' particle physics model of inflation. Based on the implementation of D-term hybrid inflation in strongly coupled supersymmetric gauge theories, this setup overcomes all the usual problems of D-term hybrid inflation, including the consistent generation of an Fayet-Iliopoulos term in supergravity and the cosmic string problem. The D term may be associated with a gauged U(1)_B-L, so that the end of inflation spontaneously breaks B-L in the visible sector, setting the stage for neutrino mass generation and leptogenesis.

Friday, April 21st 2017

Friday, April 28th 2017
Speaker: Antonio Delgado, (Notre Dame U.)
Subject: Searching for compressed spectra

I will present two scenarios where standard searches for SUSY at the LHC are not very efficient because the mass splitting between the LSP and the NLSP is small and therefore there is not a lot of MET in the events. I will then use different observables to be able to improve the reach of the LHC in this kind of situations.

Friday, May 5th 2017
Speaker: Andrew Matas (University of Minnesota)
Subject: Aspects of Massive Gravity

I will review the motivation for and construction of a theory of Lorentz-invariant massive gravity which is free of the Boulware-Deser ghost. After giving an overview of observational constraints on massive gravity, I will describe in more detail spherically symmetric solutions which exhibit the Vainshtein screening mechanism, which is required to avoid the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity. I will show how these solutions can be used to study fifth force effects in the solar system, as well as scalar radiation from binary pulsars.

Friday, September 8th 2017
Speaker: Bharat Ratra (Kansas State U.)
Subject: Cosmological Seed Magnetic Field from Inflation

A cosmological magnetic field of nG strength on Mpc length scales could be the seed magnetic field needed to explain observed few microG large-scale galactic magnetic fields. I first briefly review the observational and theoretical motivations for such a seed field, two galactic magnetic field amplification models, and some non-inflationary seed field generation scenarios. I then discuss an inflation magnetic field generation model. I conclude by mentioning possible extensions of this model as well as potentially observable consequences.

Friday, September 15th 2017
Speaker: There will be no seminar this week

Friday, September 22nd 2017
Speaker: Marilena Loverde (Stonybrook U.)
Subject: Neutrinos, Quintessence, and Structure Formation in the Universe

The large-scale structure of our universe (the distribution of galaxies on very large-scales for instance) contains a wealth of information about the origin, evolution, and matter content of the universe. Extracting this information relies crucially on understanding how galaxies and other biased objects trace the large-scale matter distribution. In a universe such as our own, with both cold dark matter and massive neutrinos, or in alternative cosmologies with clustered quintessence, this problem is much more complicated. I will discuss new tools that my group has developed to study gravitational evolution in cosmologies with multiple fluids, the novel signatures we have identified including a new probe of neutrino mass, and the broader implications for models of large-scale structure.

Friday, September 29th 2017
Speaker: Kiel Howe (Fermilab)
Subject: Flavorful UV Instantons and the Strong CP Problem

We describe a new solution to the strong CP problem inspired by the massless up quark solution. At high energies, QCD is embedded in a SU(3)xSU(3)xSU(3) model, with each matter generation charged under a different site. Instanton effects are unsuppressed at the scale of Higgsing to the SM diagonal QCD, and a set of anomalous U(1)_PQ symmetries removes the low-energy strong CP phase. A non-zero theta parameter is generated at loop level near current bounds. Similar models can also lead to a heavy axion solution to the strong CP problem.

Friday, October 6th 2017
Speaker: Edwin Ireson (U. Minnesota)
Subject: Worldsheet-Induced Corrections to the Holographic Veneziano Amplitude

The Veneziano amplitude is a very useful tool to model meson scattering in confining gauge theories, with many attractive features, namely providing an example of amplitudes with a clear linear Regge trajectory. But this formulation is incomplete- it effectively only exist in theories where the coupling never runs. We expect the Regge trajectory to bend away from linearity due to the running of the coupling at higher energies: we propose a way of doing so, using string theory and the holographic duality, in order to improve on a long-standing result of Makeenko and Olesen.

Friday, October 13th 2017
Speaker: Gary Shiu (U. Wisconsin-Madison)
Subject: Swampland Conjectures and their Applications to Cosmology and Particle Physics

Friday, October 20th 2017
Speaker: Stefania Gori (U. Cincinnati)
Subject: Novel windows into the dark sector

Dark Matter (DM) provides strong evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). Arguably, rather than suggesting a specific mass scale for New Physics, it may point to a dark sector, weakly-coupled to the SM, as hinted at by the comparable abundances of dark matter and visible baryons. In the past few years, a program of new experiments has expanded DM searches far beyond the WIMP paradigm to include new hidden forces and matter. While this program has made impressive progress, there are considerable challenges that must be overcome to fully explore the viable dark sector scenarios over a wide range of mass scales. In this talk, I will discuss on the one hand the unprecedented opportunity to test electroweak scale dark sectors using high-energy experiments, and in particular the high-luminosity LHC. On the other hand, I will present new search strategies to test lighter dark sectors at low-energy high-intensity experiments, with a special emphasis on existing and planned experiments at Fermilab.

Friday, October 27th 2017
Speaker: Gustavo Marques Tavares (Stanford)
Subject: "Detecting dark matter from Supernovae

The central region of Supernovae are one of the hottest and densest regions in the Universe. Due to the high temperatures, particles with masses below hundreds of MeV can be copiously produced if they have non-negligible couplings to the Standard Model. In this talk I will show that in a wide range of dark sector models, the dark matter flux from past Supernovae could be sufficiently large enough to be detected in dark matter direct detection experiments.

Friday, November 3rd 2017
Speaker: Mark Hertzberg (Tufts U.)
Subject: TBA

Friday, November 10th 2017
Speaker: Stan Brodsky (SLAC)
Subject: Supersymmetric features of Hadron Physics and other Novel Properties of QCD from Light-Front Holography and Superconformal Quantum Mechanics

Friday, November 17th 2017
Speaker: Ben von Harling (DESY)
Subject: TBA

Friday, November 24th 2017

Friday, December 1st 2017
Speaker: Vitaly Vanchurin (UMN Duluth)
Subject: TBA

Friday, December 8th 2017
Speaker: Matthew Johnson (Perimeter Institute and York University)
Subject: TBA

Friday, December 15th 2017
Speaker: TBA
Subject: TBA

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