Cosmology Lunchtime Seminar

semester, 2018

Monday, January 22nd 2018
1:25 pm:
To be announced.

Monday, January 29th 2018
12:15 pm:
There will be no seminar this week.

Monday, February 5th 2018
12:15 pm:
There will be no seminar this week.

Monday, February 12th 2018
12:15 pm:
Speaker: Lawrence Rudnick, UMN
Subject: The Stormy Life of Galaxy Clusters

This is a modified version of my plenary talk from the recent AAS Meeting. Regular cosmo seminar attendees will have seen some of this before, but this talk puts things into a larger, and hopefully useful, context.

Galaxy clusters, the largest gravitationally bound structures, hold the full history of their baryonic evolution, serve as important cosmological tools and allow us to probe unique physical regimes in their diffuse plasmas. With characteristic dynamical timescales of 107-109 years, these diffuse thermal and relativistic media continue to evolve, as dark matter drives major mergers and more gentle continuing accretion. The history of this assembly is encoded in the plasmas, and a wide range of observational and theoretical investigations are aimed at decoding their signatures. X-ray temperature and density variations, low Mach number shocks, and "cold front" discontinuities all illuminate clusters' continued evolution. Radio structures and spectra are passive indicators of merger shocks, while radio galaxy distortions reveal the complex motions in the intracluster medium. Deep in cluster cores, AGNs associated with brightest cluster galaxies provide ongoing energy, and perhaps even stabilize the intracluster medium. In this talk, we will recount this evolving picture of the stormy ICM, and suggest areas of likely advance in the coming years.

Monday, February 19th 2018
12:15 pm:
Speaker: Marcelo Alvarez, UC Berkeley, Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics
Subject:  The Bright Future of Reionization with 21 cm and CMB Observations

In the coming decade we will witness the completion of CMB and 21 cm experiments that promise to lift the veil on reionization. Up until now, the details of reionization have remained shrouded in mystery across the chasm of space and time that separates us from the billion years after the big bang in which it occured, more than 12 billion years ago and 30 billion light years away due to cosmic expansion. CMB observations probe the distribution of what we think was a complicated network of growing and overlapping ionized bubbles created by UV and X-ray ancient dwarf galaxies and newborn supermassive black holes, while 21 cm observations probe the neutral patches left behind. As such, these two types of observations provide complementary information about the first billion years. I will discuss the exciting new prospects for understanding reionization by analyzing upcoming 21 cm and CMB observations jointly, emphasizing how simulations can help us avoid the pitfalls associated with teasing out the faint signals from nearby foregrounds, instrumental noise, and systematics.

Faculty Host: Shaul Hanany

Monday, February 26th 2018
12:15 pm:
There will be no seminar this week.

Monday, March 5th 2018
12:15 pm:
Speaker: Zewei Xiong, UMN
Subject:  Active-sterile neutrino oscillations in the neutrino-driven wind

Neutrino-driven winds from a proto-neutron star made in a core-collapse supernova have been studied extensively as a site for production of elements heavier than the Fe group. The absorption of electron neutrinos and antineutrinos on free nucleons not only provide the heating to drive the wind, but also determine the neutron-to-proton ratio, or equivalently the electron fraction of the wind, which is a critical parameter for nucleosynthesis. Flavor mixing between electron neutrino (antineutrino) and a sterile species that lacks normal weak interaction can potentially impact the dynamics and nucleosynthesis of the wind. We have implemented this active-sterile mixing in a steady-state model of the wind. We find that mixing with a sterile neutrino of ~1eV in mass can significantly affect the electron fraction and hence, nucleosynthesis in the wind.

Faculty Host: Yong-Zhong Qian

Monday, March 19th 2018
12:15 pm:
No Seminar This Week

Monday, March 26th 2018
12:15 pm:
Speaker: Liliya L.R. Williams, UMN
Subject: Relaxation of dark matter halos: distribution in energy and angular momentum

The problem of figuring out the properties of steady-state configuration of dark matter halos has a long history. I will recap some of that, including our contribution to it. I will summarize our results concerning relaxation in terms of energy, and discuss our ongoing work on incorporating angular momentum. I will also present a comparison of theoretical predictions with observations and simulations.

Monday, April 2nd 2018
12:15 pm:
Speaker: Matt Gomer, UMN
Subject:  Lensing degeneracies and their effect on H_0 measurements

At present, there is a 3σ discrepancy between the local measurements of H0 and those derived from CMB observations. To explore whether or not this is significant, the current goal is to constrain H0 to within 1%, optimally using methods independent from these two. One potential method is to use the time delays between multiple images of gravitationally lensed system as an absolute measure of distance independent of either the distance ladder or CMB modelling. In order to accomplish this at the 1% level, it is critical that the lens system is modelled to similar precision. Unfortunately, there exist lensing degeneracies such as the mass sheet degeneracy which can result in the same set of observables using different mass distributions. Unless these degeneracies can be broken, measurements of H0 will be biased by an unknown amount. In this talk, I detail current efforts to quantify these biases and explore what the future holds for this method.

Faculty Host: Liliya L.R. Williams

Monday, April 9th 2018
12:15 pm:
Speaker: Jose Diego, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, CSIC
Subject: The Universe at Extreme Magnification

Galaxies and galaxy clusters can magnify objects at cosmic distances by large factors. To first order the maximum possible magnification depends on i) the mass of the lens and ii) the size of the background object. Small objects, like stars, can be magnified by factors of several thousand when the lens is a galaxy cluster. Kelly et al. 2018 discovered the first star at cosmological distance magnified by such extreme factors. I will show how the properties of the magnification can be altered by intervening microlenses (from the macrolens) and how this can be used to constrain the amount of dark matter that is in compact form. Gravitational Waves (GW) are another example, where the signal originates from an incredibly small source. I will show how the most massive events detected by LIGO can be re-interpreted as strongly lensed events at z~1-2 by groups of galaxies or small clusters at z~0.3.

Faculty Host: Patrick Kelly

Monday, April 16th 2018
12:15 pm:
No Seminar this Week

Monday, April 23rd 2018
12:15 pm:
Speaker: Qi Wen, UMN
Subject: Broadband anti-reflection coatings using “moth-eye” structures in millimeter and submillimeter astronomy

Wasting is evil, let alone wasting the light signal from billions years ago that can potentially reveal the secrets of the Universe. Unfortunately, optical elements in a telescope, such as lenses and filters, reflect part of the light back to sky. In millimeter and submillimeter astronomy, broadband anti-reflection coatings (ARC) are more desired than ever for foreground modeling. In this talk, I will introduce the subwavelength structures (SWS) or so called “moth-eye” structures as an emerging type of broadband ARC in millimeter and submillimeter astronomy.

Faculty Host: Shaul Hanany

Monday, April 30th 2018
12:15 pm:
Speaker:  Andre Luiz De Gouvea, Northwestern
Subject: Chiral Dark Sectors, Neutrino Masses, and Dark Matter

The Physics behind nonzero neutrino masses and the nature of the so-called dark matter remain elusive. Both, however, point to new degrees of freedom that couple very weakly to the known Standard Model degrees of freedom. I explore the possibility that these new degrees of freedom are the matter particles of a new chiral gauge symmetry under which the Standard Model degrees of freedom are gauge singlets. In more detail, I discuss on mechanism for constructing chiral gauge theories and present two concrete models: one based on a U(1) chiral gauge theory, the other on an SU(3)xSU(2) chiral gauge theory.

Faculty Host: M. Claudia Scarlata
4:40 pm:
Speaker: David-Michael Poehlmann
Subject: Gadolinium-loaded Plastic Scintillator for Neutron Detection
Faculty Host: Paul Crowell

Monday, May 7th 2018
12:15 pm:
There will be no seminar this week.

Monday, September 24th 2018
12:15 pm:
Speaker: Joshua A. Frieman, Fermilab
Faculty Host: Vuk Mandic

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